Large amounts of industrial and municipal residue streams are generated in Europe and are often either stockpiled or used in low value applications.

Overview of Fe-rich residues generated in Europe. Bauxite residue and fayalitic slags, considered in this project, represent about 7.5 Mtons/year

Two common, yet geographically dispersed, streams include slags from copper production and red mud, a by-product from alumina production originating from the Bayer process

Overview of European alumina refineries (red), copper smelters (green), and RECOVER partners (black dots)

Both streams have already been subject to extensive research on their valorization in building materials. The application towards inorganic polymers stands out as it yields an alternative to cement, low-CO2 construction material.